On 2 July 1976, Vietnam became the(fig. 1). Just over a year after the end of the , crowds gathered across a united Vietnam. With its formation, Vietnam proudly stated its united independence for the first time in just under 80 years.
A History of War
The annexation of Vietnam by China in the 2nd century made Vietnam a division of China for over a millennium. Successive imperial dynasties expanded southward throughout Vietnam until the advent of French colonisation in 1887.
Declaration of Independence (fig. 1) delivered to a large crowd at Ba Đình Square in , he outlined the right of the Vietnamese to “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.”1 He proposed Vietnam’s freedom from Japanese occupation during World War II as well as from French colonialism. In doing so, he also announced the creation of the (DRV).declared Vietnamese independence on 2 September 1945. In his
However, the formation of the French Indochinese Federation in 1947 dashed’s goal of an independent Vietnam. He and his ideals were ostracised by reinforced French control, aided by British and American support. In the ensuing , lived in isolation in the autonomous region, from where he organised the resistance.
Dreams of Independence Dashed
After thewon at the Battle of Điện Biên Phủ, and the communist population of Vietnam once again imagined independence and unity. Instead, the Geneva Accords ratified the division of the country along the demilitarised . Ngo Dinh Diem’s illegal and gerrymandered South Vietnamese elections followed. Unhappy with these events, North Vietnam and communist Vietnamese went to war, once again.
North Vietnam’s inspirational leader, or Uncle Hồ, died at the beginning of the . The ideal for unification and independence, however, lived on. Until, on 31 April 1975, People’s Army of Vietnam troops and the (NLF) took .
Only on 2 July 1976 did the formation of thepoint to Vietnam’s complete independence.