The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), also known as the South Vietnamese Army (SVA), was the ground forces of the South Vietnamese military from its inception in 1955 as the Republic of Vietnam until its dissolution and the country’s liberation in 1975. The ARVN began as a post-colonial army trained and closely affiliated with the United States. Initially used as a ‘blocking-force‘, the ARVN gradually developed into a modern conventional force using helicopter deployment in combat. During the process of Vietnamisation initiated by the Nixon adminstration, the ARVN was expanded and reconstructed to fulfil the role of the departing U.S. forces. However, until 1974, it is well documented that the ARVN suffered from poor training, poor leadership and a general lack of commitment from its troops, resulting in an estimated 1,394,000 casualties suffered during the Second Indochina War.