John Fitzgerald “Jack” Kennedy (29 May 1917 to 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as JFK, was an American Democrat politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 after narrowly defeating Richard Nixon, until his assassination in November 1963. Kennedy represented Massachusetts in the US House of Representatives and Senate prior to becoming president. He is the youngest man to be elected as U.S. president. He increased the number of American military advisers in South Vietnam by a factor of 18 over President Dwight D. Eisenhower. He is also known for deescalating the tensions and potential conflict over what became better known as the Cuban Missile Crises. Domestically, Kennedy presided over the establishment of the Peace Corps and supported the civil rights movement.