The Nhân Văn Journal (Humanities Journal) was started in September 1955 in Hanoi. Its editor was Phan Khôi (founder of the New Poetry Movement in the 1930s), and its secretary was Tran Duy. The Nhân Văn group consisted of the dissident North Vietnamese intellectuals from 1955 to 1958. This group was led by Phan Khôi, a revolutionary from Quảng Nam. Most of these intellectuals had participated in the movement against French colonialism. After the first phase of land reform, they became disillusioned and started a political movement demanding political freedom and democracy.
(Ben Kiernan, Viet Nam : A History from Earliest Times to the Present, 2017, Oxford University Press, USA)